The basic principle of the piezo ceramic motor has been known for almost 100 years. However, it took decades to get from an idea to a reliable, industrial product. Just like with electromagnetic motors, many different types have been developed and tested over the years. Today, one can say that piezo motors have become mainstream driving elements in industrial and commercial applications. The reason why it took much longer and more effort to get to this point, compared with traditional electric motors, lies both in the precision required of mechanical parts and in the complexity of the drive electronics, which only became available with the abundance of high-powered digital chips at reasonable costs.
All piezo motors generate motion based on small deformation of a piezoceramic material caused by a change in the applied electric field. There are a number of linear and rotary principles based on slow or high-frequency oscillatory motions. Basically, piezo motors can be grouped into three main types: resonance-motors (ultrasonic drives), inertia-motors (stick-slip principle), and piezo-walk drives. Read the full article here.