- OEM / SystemsOEM Systems | Precision Components | Automation Sub-SystemsPI offers 1000’s of proven, off-the-shelf precision motion products that can be quickly modified for the OEM or into a custom automation sub-system.
- Meeting the Demands of OEMsOEM Systems | Precision Components | Automation Sub-SystemsPI has a long track record of working with OEMs in the most demanding industries from Semiconductor Technology to Medical Design – industries where product performance, quality, and the ability to ramp up quickly are not the only parameters required to satisfy the customer's demands. Working with technology leaders all around the world forces you to continuously improve your yield, process, and product performance. And unless your quality is outstanding, you cannot become a key supplier to major US, European, and Japanese companies in the Optics, Photonics, Semiconductor, and Automotive industry.
- Engineered Motion / Automation Sub-SystemsPrecision Automation Solutions | Engineered SystemsPI is a supplier of high-end precision motion systems and makes use of own drive components and high-precision positioners to build customized positioning and automation sub-systems —“motion engines”—for our customers. With the largest portfolio of precision motion technologies in the industry, PI engineers have the best foundation to find a solution that matches your requirements in terms of precision, quality and budget – in a timeframe that works for you.
- Meeting the Demands of OEMs
- ProductsPrecision Motion Technologies | Positioning SystemsOverview of the Broadest & Deepest Portfolio of Precision Motion and Automation Technologies from Piezo to Air Bearings and Linear Motors
- Products: Overview, New, Finder, ShopFind Precision Positioning Solutions Quickly - Product Finder | PI USAWith thousands of standard products and customization available, PI has the motion control positioning product solution for your application.
- Products OverviewProducts OverviewOverview of the Broadest & Deepest Portfolio of Precision Motion and Automation Technologies from Piezo to Air Bearings and Linear Motors
- New ProductsNew Motion Control & Precision Positioning Products | PI USALearn about the latest innovations in motion control and nanopositioning components and systems.
- Product FinderUse the PI Product Finder - it's fast and easy!Select the product type specified by the axes of motion required. Selection of more criteria expands or shortens the list of results. Select more than one filter at at time, for example, to find positioning stages designed for higher load capacity, too.
- ► Shop► ShopShop for select PI products online
- Products Overview
- Air Bearings & Ultra High Precision StagesAir Bearing Stages | Motorized | Linear | RotaryAir bearings provide advantages over mechanical bearings when vibration-free motion is required, highly constant velocity control is crucial, and when angular repeatability and geometric performance must be optimal. Air bearing stages (linear, rotary, and spherical) replace mechanical contact by a thin air film, avoiding wear, friction, vibration, and hysteresis effects.
- Miniature Positioning StagesMiniature Positioning Stages | Supplier | ManufacturerCompact positioning stages are crucial for the miniaturization process in cutting-edge research and industrial applications, for test & measurement, optical and opto-mechanical alignment, and component assembly. PI provides the largest portfolio of miniature stages, including high-speed linear motor stages, economical stepper motor units, and ultra-compact piezo motor positioners.
- Motorized Stages: Linear, Rotary, XYMotorized Stages | Positioning | ManufacturerPI offers the broadest and deepest range of precision motion technologies for micro and nano precision applications. Our engineers work with our customers to find the best drive and bearing technology for each individual application. Having access to multiple drive and positioning technologies allows an open discussion with a better outcome for the customer.
- Overview - Motorized Linear/Rotary StagesOverview - Motorized Linear/Rotary Stages
- Linear StagesLinear Stages - Precision Positioning Solutions | PI USASeveral types of motorized precision linear translation stages | PI USA
- Fast Linear Motor Stages and ActuatorsOverview: Linear Stage, Linear Motor Driven, Fast Brushless Motor Positioning Stages | PI USABrushless linear motor-driven stages provide high speed, precision and long life.
- Z-Stages (Vertical Motion)Vertical Linear Stages – Precision Motorized Z-Positioners | PI USA
- XY StagesXY Stages – 2-Axis Motorized Precision Positioning Stages | PI USASeveral types of planar XY stages: Direct-driven stages, ball-screw stages and air bearing planar XY stages
- XYZ StagesXYZ Stage - Multi-Axis Precision Motorized Stages
- Rotary Stages / GoniometersPrecision Rotation Stage, High Resolution Rotary Positioners, Rotation Tables, Goniometers, by PI USASeveral types of motorized rotation stages: Direct-driven stages, ball-bearing stages and air bearing stages
- Heavy Duty Stages / Industrial AutomationHigh Speed / Performance Positioning Stages for Automation - Linear Stages | Rotary Stages | PI USAHigh performance motorized stages, designed for heavy duty applications in industrial precison automation.
- Sub-Systems for AutomationSYS > Engineered Motion/Automation Sub-SystemsThe PI group employs over 1,200 people in 15 countries and runs engineering and manufacturing centers on 3 continents. Select from the broadest portfolio of precision motion technologies, including piezoelectric and air bearing systems, with 1,000’s of standard products or have our engineers provide you with a custom solution.
- Overview - Motorized Linear/Rotary Stages
- Linear ActuatorsActuators | Precision | Linear | Actuator SystemA precision linear actuator is a positioning device that provides motion in 1 degree of freedom. PI designs and manufactures a variety of precision linear actuators (pushers) including economical stepper-motor driven actuators, high-speed linear motor types for automation and nanometer precise piezo-motor actuators.
- Gantries / Cartesian RobotsGantry Stages | Gantries | Cartesian RobotA gantry precision positioning stage is sometimes called a linear robot or Cartesian robot. Gantries typically provide motion in 2 or 3 linear degrees of freedom (X-Y and X-Y-Z) and are often used for pick and place applications, 3D printing or laser machining, and welding applications.
- 6-Axis Hexapods / Parallel PositionersHexapod Positioner | Six DOF | Stewart PlatformsHexapod positioners are often referred to as Stewart Platforms. A hexapod is based on a 6-axis (XYZ, Pitch, Roll, Yaw) actuator system arranged in parallel between a top and bottom platform. PI parallel kinematics (PKM) precision positioning systems have many advantages over serial kinematics stages, such as lower inertia, improved dynamics, smaller package size and higher stiffness. In addition hexapods are more flexible than conventional 6 axis positioners.
- 6-Axis Hexapods / Parallel Positioners6-Axis Hexapods / Parallel Positioners
- Control of Hexapod / Stewart Platforms: Hexapod Motion Controllers & Simulation Software6DOF Motion Platforms | Hexapod Controllers & Simulation Software | Stewart Platform | ManufacturerControllers, software and accessories for Hexapod Stewart platforms and parallel kinematic motion systems | PI USA
- 6-Axis Hexapods / Parallel Positioners
- Piezo Flexure Nanopositioning StagesNanometer Precision: Piezo Stages for Nanopositioning, Piezo Nanopositioners, Piezo Flexure Scanning Stages | PI USAPI offers the broadest and deepest portfolio of nanometer precision motion technologies, from piezo-driven nanopositioning and scanning stages to motorized 6-axis hexapod positioning systems.
- Overview - Piezo Flexure StagesOverview - Piezo Flexure Stages
- Linear Piezo Flexure StagesLinear Piezo Stages for Nanopositioning – Flexure-Guided Precision NanoPositioners | PI USALargest selection of frictionless, high performance piezo-stack-driven flexure linear nanopositioning stages | PI USA
- Vertical & Tip/Tilt Piezo StagesPiezo Z-Stage, Piezo Z-Tip-Tilt Platform. Flexure Guided Nanopositioning Stages| PI USALarge selection of Piezo Z-Stages and Tip/Tilt scanners with nanometer precision | PI USA
- Fast Steering Mirrors & Tip/Tilt PlatformsPiezo Steering Mirrors | Active Optics
- Nanofocus Lens ScannersFast Piezo Focus Lens Positioners and Scanners – Piezo Flexure Guided Precision Positioners | PI USALargest Selection of Nano-Focus drives for microscope lenses – flexure-guided precision positioners
- XY Piezo Flexure StagesPiezo Stages | XY | Nanopositioning StagesLargest selection of integrated XY piezo flexure stages with nanometer precision.
- XYZ Piezo Flexure StagesXYZ Piezo Nanopositioning Stages – Flexure Guided 3-Axis Precision Positioners | PI USALargest selection of integrated XYZ piezo flexure stages with nanometer precision.
- 6-Axis Piezo Flexure Stages6-Axis Piezo Nanopositioning Stages – Flexure Guided Precision Positioners | PI USAPiezo-driven fast steering mirrors (FSM) achieve nanoradian resolution and high bandwidth.
- Tutorial - Piezo NanopositioningNanometer Precision: Nanopositioning Basics Tutorial. Piezo Nanopositioners, Scanning Stages, Flexure Guided Positioners | PI USAThere are several ways to achieve nanometer precision motion. The best positioning systems avoid friction all together, in both the drive system (motor) and in the guiding system (bearings). Frictionless bearings also avoid the bearing rumble caused by balls and rollers and provide vibration-free motion with highly constant velocity.
- Overview - Piezo Flexure Stages
- Piezo Motors: Stages & ActuatorsPiezo Motors | Linear Motor Positioners | ManufacturerPiezo Motors are intrinsically vacuum compatible, non-magnetic and self locking at rest, providing long travel compared to traditional piezo mechanisms. The individual drive concepts are optimized for different applications, they differ in their design, size, cost, force & speed and other performance parameters.
- Overview - Piezo Motors (Stages/Actuators)Overview - Piezo Motors (Stages/Actuators)
- Actuators with Piezo MotorsCompact precision linear actuators stages with several types of piezo motor drives – ultrasonic, stick-slip, piezo-walk, piezo-ratchet. | PI USA
- Linear Stages with Piezo MotorsPrecision linear stages with several types of piezo motor drives – ultrasonic, stick-slip, piezo-walk, piezo-ratchet. | PI USA
- XY Stages with Piezo MotorsXY piezo motor linear stages with several types of precision piezo motor drives – ultrasonic, stick-slip, piezo-walk | PI USA
- XY Piezo Flexure StagesXY Piezo Flexure StagesHigh-precision 2-axis nanopositioning systems integrate PICMA® piezo actuators for maximum reliability. Repeatable, drift-free positioning with optimal stability is possible by the use of high-quality nanometrology sensors.
- Rotary Stages with Piezo MotorsRotary piezo motor stages with several types of precision piezo motors– ultrasonic, stick-slip (inertia), | PI USA
- Tutorial - Piezo Motion ControlWhy All Piezo Motors are NOT Created Equal: The piezoelectric effect for precision motion control - PI Physik Instrumente.The demand for higher speed and/or precision in fields such as bio-nanotechnology, semiconductors, metrology, data comm, and photonics keep pushing manufacturers to come up with innovative drive technologies.
- Overview - Piezo Motors (Stages/Actuators)
- Piezo Transducers & ActuatorsPiezo Actuator | Piezo Transducer | ManufacturerPiezoelectric translators (transducers) are precision ceramic actuators which convert electrical energy directly into linear motion with high speed, force and virtually unlimited resolution. These actuators are used in every modern high tech field from semiconductor test & inspection to super-resolution microscopy, bio-nanotechnology and astronomy/aerospace technology.
- Piezo Actuators & Transducers: Stacks, Chips, Benders, Tubes, Spheres, Shear…Piezo Actuators & Transducers: Stacks, Chips, Benders, Tubes, Spheres, Shear…
- Value-Added Piezo Transducers & Piezo AssembliesValue Added Piezo Assemblies: Transducers, Actuators, Sensors, Manufactured by PI CeramicDeveloping and manufacturing piezo ceramic materials and components are complex processes. PI Ceramic - PI’s piezo material design and manufacturing facility - boasts several decades of experience as well as the right tools for rapid prototyping of custom engineered piezo components and assemblies. From the formulation of advanced piezo materials to the processing steps such as cutting, milling, grinding, and the precision assembly, every stage is controlled by our engineers and product specialists.
- Piezo Ceramic ComponentsPiezo Ceramic Components
- Piezo Actuators & Transducers: Stacks, Chips, Benders, Tubes, Spheres, Shear…
- Microscopy, Bio-Imaging, Life SciencesHigh Precision Microscope Stages, Piezo Lens Scanners, Tools for Bio-Imaging | PI-USAPiezo nano-positioning stages are essential tools for high-resolution microscopy, such as Super Resolution Microscopy or AFM. Their sub-atomic resolution and extremely fast response allow researchers to create higher-quality images faster. PI provides a large variety of fast Z-Stages and collar piezo objective positioners for 3D imaging (Z-stack acquisition), deconvolution, and fast focusing applications.
- Photonics Alignment SolutionsActive Photonics Alignment | Optics Alignment | SolutionsPI provides a variety of innovative fiber alignment systems from motorized fiber positioners to automated optic and photonic alignment such as used in telecommunication, data commumication and for packaging / automation. In addition to fiber-based applications, fast steering systems for free-space-optical communication are also available. Products range from motorized 6D micromotion alignment systems for industrial photonics automation, through ultra-fast piezoelectric scanning & alignment modules to modular devices with manual control for laboratory test setups. All motorized systems come with extensive software for easy setup and integration.
- Vacuum Positioning Stages & ActuatorsVacuum / UHV Compatible Stages - Linear & Rotary Positioners for Vacuum, Wide Temperature Ranges | PI USAPI miCos has extensive experience in the design and manufacturing of vacuum and high vacuum compatible precision optomechanical positioning equipment for low temperature and wide temperature ranges. We provide translation stages, vertical linear stages, rotation stages, XY stages and complex multi-axis positioning systems in vacuum spec.
- VacuumProduct Series with Vacuum-Ready ItemsPI offers specific catalogue items for selected product series that are already suitable for high vacuum (HV) or ultra-high vacuum (UHV).
- Controllers, Drivers, Motion SoftwareMotion Controllers, Piezo Drivers-High Voltage Amplifiers, and Motion Software Overview | PI USA
- Overview - Controllers & Motion SoftwareOverview - Controllers & Motion Software
- Piezo Controller, Driver, Nanopositioning Controller, High-Voltage Amplifier, Piezo Power Supply by PI USAPiezo Drivers | Piezo Motion Controllers | ManufacturerA piezo controller or driver is used to control the motion of a piezo positioning device. There are open and closed loop controllers. Open-loop controllers are often referred to as piezo driver or even piezo power supply. Closed-loop controllers are divided in two basic types: analog-servo and digital servo controllers.
- Controllers/Drivers for Motorized StagesMotion Controller | Drivers | Positioning SystemsPI provides a large variety of hardware & software solutions for high precision motion control. Our portfolio spans from integrated compact single axis servo controllers / drivers, such as popular Mercury-class motion controllers, to complex multi-axis systems for parallel-kinematics positioners, such as hexapods.
- ACS Motion ControlACS Motion Control for Industrial AutomationWe recommend the controllers of our partner, ACS Motion Control especially for automation with industrial standards. Ask us about your integrated solution!
- Software - Motion Control SoftwareMotion Control Software | Software Tools | Positioning SolutionsFor LabView, C++, VB, Matlab, Image Acquisitiong Packages, NI DAC Cards, ..... PI provides high-level, robust, easy-to-use software tools for fast, seamless integration of motion systems into application control software.
- Overview - Controllers & Motion Software
- Capacitive SensorsNanometer Resolution: Capacitance Sensors for Nano-Measuring, Nano-Metrology | PIA capacitive sensor is a proximity sensor that detects nearby objects by their effect on the electrical field created by the sensor.
- Accessories: Plates, Brackets, CablesAdapters and Cables for PI Precision Motion ComponentsStandardization is common with adapter plates and brackets, but we can create a custom accessory to fit your application system. PI products ship with the required cables. Customization is always an option.
- Products: Overview, New, Finder, Shop
- Tech BlogPI Blog / Tech Articles on Advancements in Precision Motion Control, Automation and Piezo Technology | PI USAPI’s tech blog offers 50 years of insight into innovative applications of precision motion control, nanopositioning, and micropositioning in industry, science, and research. We hope the PI blog is an enjoyable and informative resource, and a starting-point for innovation across disciplines.
- ResourcesPI – Resources – Papers, Videos, ISO9001, Service, DownloadsFind Tech Articles, Videos, Papers, Brochures, Software Information, ISO9001 Certificates and more.
- Ask an Engineer (direct email request)Ask an Engineer (direct email request)
- User Manuals, Software, WhitepapersUser Manuals, Software, WhitepapersFind product documentation & software, catalogs & brochures, whitepapers & success stories.
- Catalogs & BrochuresDownload Catalogs on Precision Motion Control and Nanopositioning ProductsFind brochures and catalogs for download.
- ISO 90001 CertificatesISO 90001 CertificatesView PI's active ISO certificate
- Metric Tolerances & Thread PitchMetric Tolerances & Thread PitchView metric tolerances and thread pitch classifications
- Motion Control SoftwareMotion Control SoftwarePI provides high-level, robust, easy-to-use motion control software tools for fast, seamless integration of motion systems into application control software. Supported programming languages and applications include LabView, C++, VB, Matlab, Image Acquisitioning Packages, NI DAC Cards, ...
- News & EventsNews & EventsFind PI press releases, enews, and tradeshow exhibit schedule where you can get free advice from a PI Engineer.
- SeminarsFree Seminars on Precision Motion Control / Automation – Motorized and Piezo-Based Solutions | PI USA
- ServicePI – Global Customer Services
- On-Site ServicesOn-Site ServicesThe PI Global Services Division (GSD) is a team of PI skilled after-sales support engineers located around the world, dedicated to providing world class customer support.
- Extended WarrantyExtended Warranty
- Ask an EngineerAsk an EngineerQuickly receive an answer to your question by email or phone from a local PI sales engineer.
- Request ServiceRequest ServiceQuickly receive an answer to your question by email or phone from a local PI sales engineer.
- DownloadsDownloadsFind interesting downloads: Product documentations, brochures, catalogs, certificates, success stories, whitepaper and PI Update Finder.
- Expert Consultancy from PIExpert Consultancy from PIIf our customers need to solve a complex problem, they often require individual advice. We are happy to come and advise you on site.
- On-Site Services
- Tech BlogTech BlogPI’s tech blog offers over 40 years of insight into innovative applications of precision motion control, nanopositioning, and micropositioning in industry, science, and research. We hope the PI blog is an enjoyable and informative resource, and a starting-point for innovation across disciplines.
- Technical Papers / WhitepapersTechnotes & Whitepapers / Application Articles: Piezo / Micro- / Nanopositioning Motion Control: Technical Research PaperPI precision motion and positioning solutions have helped customers in many industrial fields and research laboratories to achieve their goals faster. Feel free to download the papers below.
- Videos & AnimationsVideos on Motion Control and Positioning Technologies | PI USAWatch videos, animations and practical applications of PI products, systems, components
- WebinarsWebinarsWebinar topics include piezo mechanisms, adaptive machines, automation manufacturing advancements, photonics assembly & packing concepts.
- Apps/TechTechnologies and Applications for Precision Motion Components and Sub-Systems | PI USAPI products are often used at the cutting edge of technology. They solve critical motion problems in lithography, microscopy, astronomy, laser technology, photonics and semiconductor manufacturing on locations around the world and in places as remote as the Science Lab on the Mars Rover.
- News/EventsPI - Webinars On-Demand, Company Announcements, New Products for Precision Motion ControlStay up-to-date with the latest PI news, view our webinars on-demand, see product demos or virtual tradeshows, or connect with a PI engineer.
- News & EventsNews & EventsStay up to date with the latest PI news, or plan on talking to a PI engineer at a tradeshow.
- Product DemosProduct DemosFrom 3D printing to photonics alignment, from industrial automation to in vitro diagnostics
- WebinarsMotion Control On-Demand WebinarsWebinar topics include piezo mechanisms, adaptive machines, automation manufacturing advancements, photonics assembly & packing concepts
- Virtual Trade Show StandsWelcome to Our Virtual Trade Show Stands!We would be pleased to welcome you personally at our exhibition stands all over the world. In addition, we also invite you to our virtual trade show stands - be inspired by our application solutions!
- AboutAbout PI USA: Custom design & service / export controlled applications & ITAR RegisteredPI (Physik Instrumente) provides the broadest and deepest portfolio of precision motion technologies in the world. PI USA complies with the US laws for export controlled technologies.
- AboutAbout PI USA / Custom design & service / export controlled applications & ITAR RegisteredPI (Physik Instrumente) provides the broadest and deepest portfolio of precision motion technologies in the world. PI USA complies with the US laws for export controlled technologies.
- Online Contact FormOnline Contact FormLooking for product information, datasheets, CAD files? Want to have a brainstorming consultation? Need an RMA? Have questions about your order? Request a catalog? Contact us! We're here to help you.
- Directions to PI USA OfficesDirections to PI (Physik Instrumente) USA Offices – Global Leader in Precision Motion Control Solutions
- Ask an Engineer (direct email)Ask an Engineer (direct email)Talk to our engineers first. They have access to in-depth knowledge and test data on diverse driving and guiding technologies, spanning from electromagnetic to piezoceramic and from mag-lev to air bearings. They also have experience selecting the right technology for each individual application. Often an adaptation of existing technologies/products will suffice to solve a problem. However, experience along with detailed knowledge and PI’s significant R&D investment in new technologies enables our engineers to take unique approaches.
- Request a SeminarRequest a Seminar
- News & EventsNews & Events
- CareersCareers at PI - Join the Global Leader in Precision Motion & Positioning TechnologiesPI offers sound training in technical and business careers with a future. Pupils, students, graduates and professionals can get involved at PI and will be supported by us in their professional and personal further development.
- ITAR / Export Controlled ApplicationsPI-USA: ITAR registered, motion control for defense applications, security, COTS, custom US based design, by PI USA
- Test & Metrology / Manufacturing Equipment / CleanroomsLearn what Nano-Metrology Equipment is Used to Test High-Performance Motion & Positioning Systems
- Test & Metrology / Manufacturing Equipment / Cleanrooms OverviewTest & Metrology / Manufacturing Equipment / Cleanrooms Overview
- Manufacturing in Cleanrooms at PIManufacturing in Cleanrooms at PIPI has the capability to manufacture and qualify products under cleanroom conditions, which is extended and improved continually according to market needs.
- Fractal Manufacturing Structure at PIFractal Manufacturing Structure at PIPI manufactures in autonomous organization fractals. Each unit is responsible for its own product line, has all the necessary skills and production equipment.
- Test & Metrology / Manufacturing Equipment / Cleanrooms Overview
- Watch PI Product Videos on YouTubeWatch PI Product Videos on YouTubeUse PI product videos as a resource for how you can apply our precision motion control technology to your application. Then, talk to a PI Engineer about how to make it happen.
- Connect with PI on LinkedInConnect with PI on LinkedInConnect with PI USA on LinkedIn
- Follow PI on TwitterFollow PI on TwitterFollow PI on Twitter
- PI WorldwidePI WorldwideThe PI Group represented by subsidiaries and dealers all over the world. Check here to find your local contact!
- Ask an EngineerGet Help from a PI Engineer*Save Time & Headaches – Get Free Advice from a PI Engineer* Tap into our engineers’ collective knowledge base – not only is it free, but it also saves hours of your valuable time while preventing plenty of headaches in the future.
- ContactContactLooking for product information, datasheets, CAD files? Want to have a brainstorming consultation? Need an RMA? Have questions about your order? Request a catalog? Contact us! We're here to help you.
- ShopShopShop for select PI Motion Control, Positioning and Piezo Solutions products online
- Buy Motion Control, Positioning and Piezo Solutions OnlineBuy Motion Control, Positioning and Piezo Solutions OnlineShop for select PI Motion Control, Positioning and Piezo Solutions products online (select products)
- 0Quote list
Noncontact, Direct Position Measurement with Subnanometer Accuracy
- Absolute measurement of distance, motion, and vibration
- Measuring ranges from a few 10 µm to 2 mm feasible
- Direct metrology: Direct position measurement of moving objects
- Only minimum heating, no scattered light
- Vacuum compatible to 10-9 hPa
- Maintenance-free, no wear
- High bandwidth up to 10 kHz
- High temperature and long-term stability (<0.1 nm/3 h)
- Invar options for maximum temperature stability (5 × 10-6/K)
- Compact one- and two-electrode sensors, customized designs
- Processing electronics in various configuration levels, from analog original equipment manufacturer (OEM) versions to a modular designed digital controller system that can be expanded at any time
Homogenous Electrical Field Ensures High Linearity
The PI arrangement with an additional guard ring electrode generates a very homogenous field in the active area.
In addition, all electronics from PI use integrated linearization methods that correct parallelity errors between the sensor plates. Depending on the material used, capacitive sensors provide excellent long-term stability that is largely independent of thermal influences.
Signal Processing with Linearization
The processing and measurement electronics only demonstrate minimal noise and employ a linearization system (ILS), that compensates for the influences of parallelity errors between the capacitor plates.
Digital controllers offer the highest accuracy through additional linearization algorithms with higher-order polynomials.
All systems are calibrated at PI and optimized for the intended bandwidth and the measuring range. PI offers signal condition electronics for capacitive sensors in various configuration levels, from analog OEM versions to a modular digital controller system that can be expanded at any time.
Indirect Position Measurement with Strain Gauge Sensors (SGS)
Strain gauge sensors consist of a thin metal or semiconductor foil (piezo resistant), which is attached to the piezo ceramics or, for improved precision, to the guiding system of a flexure stage. This type of position measurement is done with contact and indirectly, since the position of the moving platform is derived from a measurement on the lever, guide or piezo stack. Strain gauge sensors derive the position information from their expansion. Full-bridge circuits with several strain gauge sensors per axis improve thermal stability.
PISeca: Capacitive Single Electrode Sensors
PISeca: Capacitive Single Electrode Sensors
PISeca single-electrode capacitive sensors measure against all kinds of conductive surfaces and are easier to handle mechanically, for example, during installation or cable routing. Their employment is also more versatile, e.g., for detecting motions perpendicular to the direction of measurement.
The E-852 stand-alone processing electronics for PISeca only shows minimum noise and integrates a linearization system. All systems are calibrated at PI and optimized for the intended bandwidth and the measuring range.
>> PISeca Sensors and the corresponding processing electronics are offered as a product by PI.
Measurement of Vibration, Flatness, Thickness
The high dynamics of the PISeca system also allows measurement with excellent resolution of vibrations and oscillations. The evenness of a rotating workpiece or differences in thickness in the nanometer range can thus also be detected. For example, one possible field of application is the production of disk drives or the active compensation of vibration.
Measuring Distances with Nanometer Accuracy
Capacitive sensors reliably measure shortest distances. The quantity to be measured is the change of capacitance between the surface of the sensor head and the target surface using a homogenous electric field. The achieved accuracy lies the subnanometer range. Absolute values are determined with a well-adjusted, calibrated system.
Parallel Metrology / High-Precision Multi-Axis Measurements
For closed-loop, multi-axis nanopositioning tasks, high-performance stages with capacitive sensors combine direct metrology and paralles kinematics. When used in multi-axis nanopositioning systems, this allows measuring all degrees of freedom at the same time and actively compensating guiding errors (Active Trajectory Control concept). Here, capacitive sensors are the most precise measuring systems to give the best position resolution results.
Force Sensors with Micronewton Sensitivity
Capacitive single plate sensors are often used as high-resolution force sensors for contact-free measurement in the micronewton range. Here, minimal deviations in distance are measured contact-free over longer distances are resolutions in the subnanometer range without affecting the process to be measured. The defined stiffness of the system enables calculation of the force.
Nanopositioning / Closed Loop Systems
Nanopositioning is one application of the high-resolution displacement measurement. Here, capacitive two-plate sensors measure the direct distance and actual position of the moved object with the utmost precision. The high sensor bandwidth also allows closed-loop control in dynamic applications.
Measuring Straightness and Flatness, and Active Cross Talk Compensation
One possible application for it is the cross talk measurement in nanopositioning. This allows detecting undesired cross talking of the motion to another axis and active compensation in real time. The high sensor bandwidth provides excellent dynamic performance.