Three technologies are available to provide fast focus control for high resolution microscopes, laser machining or surface metrology. Piezo flexure stages are commonly used when the highest resolution and dynamic performance is required, and space is limited, typically with motion ranges <1mm. Voice coil motors provide a good compromise of longer travel ranges fast settling while maintaining nanometer resolution. Piezo motors can also provide millimeters of travel with high stiffness and the advantage of holding a position stable without power. All three nano-positioning technologies have specific advantages and limitations and are widely used in microscope objectives focus control (auto focus) etc. They have in common excellent resolution and speed, typically one order of magnitude higher than conventional stepper motor driven stages. Their motion controllers are compatible with major image acquisition software packages to provide high performance images for deconvolution microscopy, Z-stack image acquisition, and other super-resolution techniques. Settling times are typically in the low millisecond range. High guiding precision is achieved with frictionless, computer optimized flexures. Optical and capacitive feedback sensors guarantee nanometer and sub-nanometer precision in closed-loop operation.