The integrated planar XY positioning stages here are driven by ultrasonic piezo linear motors. Integrated XY stages have the benefit of a lower profile and reduced moving mass compared to a stack of two linear stages. Ultrasonic motors from PI with their associated controllers provide a very wide dynamic range from micrometers/second to 100’s of mm per second. They also provide fast step and settle and are intrinsically self-clamping at the end of every move and on power off. Along with this comes extreme position stability (long term drift is significantly improved by the elimination of lubricant flow of screw-drive stages, see article here).