Test and manufacturing processes often require some form of optimization by moving and aligning certain elements, or by tracking a target. Said target could be as small and special as a quantum emitter, or as common as a zebra fish used for genetic research.
Other examples are found in laser production, where optics, fibers or active media need to be adjusted for maximum output power. The performance of the smallest cell phone cameras is also dependent on the optimum alignment of individual lens elements. This can be a very time-consuming process, since each element can be positioned in 6 degrees of freedom and each change in each element may influence the optimum position of the other elements.
On the other end of the optics spectrum, there are astronomical telescopes with segmented mirror elements, where multiple gaps between individual segments need to be brought to within nanometer tolerances to maintain a perfect wavefront.
What all of these cases have in common – as long as there is a way to measure the output – it can be expressed as a quantity and PI can help to optimize and speed up the process. These quantities can be derived from image acquisition software, proprietary algorithms for balancing between multichannel or multi image acquisitions of data, or anything our customers can imagine: