Ultra-High Precision AFM with 6-Axis Laser and Piezo Scanner for Traceable Measurements on Semiconductors and Step Standards

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used for surface measurements with resolution down to atomic levels – dimensions that are far beyond even the highest resolution optical microscopes. AFM is a noncontact procedure, with forces between a very fine measuring tip and the object surface revealing information about the topography, chemical surface condition, defects, etc. Atomic […]

Raman Imaging and AFM Microscopy with Piezo-Flexure Based Nanopositioning Stages

Very often individual classical microscopic methods are no longer sufficient in terms of optical resolution or information content. The combination of different microscopic methods yields more extensive and more accurate measurement data. This combination of methods makes high demands on the individual components of the microscopes, and the sample positioning mechanisms. Ultra-High Resolution Microscopy in […]

From IoT to IoP – the Internet of Smart Piezos

A discussion with leading piezo experts on ceramics, nanopositioning, intelligent piezo systems, and weather stations Q&A with Dr. Harry Marth, Head of Piezo Technology Innovation, and Dr. Mathias Bach, Head of Piezo Systems at Physik Instrumente (PI), Karlsruhe, Germany. Most people would be looking forward to retirement after a successful career of 45 years. But […]

Advances in Piezo Nanopositioning Controllers – Digital vs. Analog

Digital piezo nanopositioning controllers have a reputation for being expensive and only cost efficient in high-end applications. A recent new design approach has changed this situation, making advanced digital control features affordable for main stream piezo motion applications. History of Digital Motion Controllers Position control for magnetic motors has been almost exclusively digital for nearly […]

Super-Resolution Optical Microscopy, Nanoscopy, and Nanopositioning Motion Control

Much has changed since the first optical microscope was designed in the late 16th century by Hans and Zaccharias Janssen, two Dutch spectacle makers. For the first time, their invention put multiple lenses to use, resulting in much higher magnifying power than a single lens could achieve. For almost 400 years optical microscopy did not […]

Quantitative Measurement of Protein Dynamics with High Linearity Atomic Force Spectrometer

The single molecule force spectrometer described in this paper uses of fast and highly linear piezo stage. This multi-axis stage (model P-313 PicoCube) can run in open loop and provide closed-loop linearity, but at higher dynamics. The linearity, bandwidth and comparative absence of hysteretic behavior for this multi-axis assembly ensure previously unattained resolution. Combined with […]

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About PI

PI (Physik Instrumente) is a leading manufacturer of precision motion control equipment, piezo motors, air bearing stages and hexapod parallel-kinematics for semiconductor applications, photonics, bio-nano-technology and medical engineering. PI has been developing and manufacturing standard & custom precision products with piezoceramic and electromagnetic drives for 4 decades. The company has been ISO 9001 certified since 1994 and provides innovative, high-quality solutions for OEM and research. PI is present worldwide with fifteen subsidiaries, R&D / engineering on 3 continents and total staff of more than 1,000.

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